Josephson Junction

Josepshson Junction

A type of {electronic} {circuit} capable of switching at very high speeds when operated at temperatures approaching {absolute zero}.Its low power dissipation factor makes ituseful in {high density computer circuits}. (2004-06-28)

Submitted my next FOLDOC entry Today to Denis Howe.

Thanks again to FOLDOC.


To you, a robot is just a robot. But you haven't worked with them. You don't know them. They're a cleaner, better breed than we are.

When Earth is ruled by master-machines... when robots are more human than humankind.

Dr.Susan Calvin.

I was spellbound by the genius of ASIMOV,when I read his I,ROBOT.

As a Mark of Respect for that Great man,here are they again...

Three Laws of Robotics

  • A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

  • A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

  • A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
  • Next Foldoc Entry to Edit: Josephson junction

    Josephson junction

  • A Josephson junction is a type of electronic circuit capable of switching at very high speeds when operated at temperatures approaching absolute zero. Named for the British physicist who designed it, a Josephson junction exploits the phenomenon of superconductivity, the ability of certain materials to conduct electric current with practically zero resistance. Josephson junctions are used in certain specialized instruments such as highly-sensitive microwave detectors, magnetometers, and QUIDs.

    A Josephson junction is made up of two superconductors, separated by a nonsuperconducting layer so thin that electrons can cross through the insulating barrier. The flow of current between the superconductors in the absence of an applied voltage is called a Josephson current, and the movement of electrons across the barrier is known as Josephson tunneling. Two or more junctions joined by superconducting paths form what is called a Josephson interferometer.

    While researching superconductivity, Brian David Josephson studied the properties of a junction between two superconductors. Following up on earlier work by Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever, he demonstrated that in a situation when there is electron flow between two superconductors through an insulating layer (in the absence of an applied voltage), and a voltage is applied, the current stops flowing and oscillates at a high frequency.

    The Josephson effect is influenced by magnetic fields in the vicinity, a capacity that enables the Josephson junction to be used in devices that measure extremely weak magnetic fields, such as superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). For their efforts, Josephson, Esaki, and Giaever shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973.

  • A superfast switch used in many computers. It consists of a thin layer of insulating material sandwiched between layers of superconducting material.

  • Consists of two superconductors separated by a thin insulating barrier. Is in fast electronic switches or sensitive magnetometers.

    As before, welcome for discussion.

    So need to Submit by June 28 to FOLDOC (But,I guess I would be sooner this time, since... I would like to :)

  • clause - FOLDOC Entry


    1. A {logical formula} in {conjunctive normal form},

    which has the {schema}

    p1 ^ ...^ pm => q1 V ... V qn.


    ~p1 V ... V ~pn V q1 V ... V qn,

    where pi and qi are {atoms}.

    The operators ~,^,V,=> are connectives,where ~ stands for a

    {negation},^ for a {conjunction},V for a {disjunction} and =>

    for an {implication}.

    2. A part of a {SQL} statement that does not constitute

    a full statement; for e.g. a "WHERE clause".


    Was sent to me on Apr 7, took a little extra time to edit.

    Thanks FOLDOC

    FOLDOC entry to edit:clause

    FOLDOC entry to edit: [Yuanqing Zhu []: clause]

    This is a logic programming thing. Needs a bit more explanation I think.

    ------- Start of forwarded message -------

    From: Yuanqing Zhu []

    To: Denis Howe [], Yuanqing Zhu []

    Subject: clause


    X-Url: sendnew

    X-Browser: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.0)

    Sender: Denis Howe

    Date: Fri, 26 Dec 2003 07:31:53 +0000


    definition of clause:the disconjuction form of literals reference:Microsoft Computer Dictionary

    ------- End of forwarded message -------


    Denis Howe

    Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing

    Need to Complete this by 7 th of May.

    As before, you are welcome for discussion on this topic.

    fourth generation language

    I was given a oppurtunity to edit a FOLDOC entry.

    I am happy to see it published now. You may enjoy reading the definition about 4GL.

    Here is format I submitted sometime December last week of 2003.( It was during /on Christmas)

    fourth generation language

    (4GL) An "application specific" language, one with built-in knowledge of an application domain, similar to {SQL} having the built-in knowledge of database domain.

    The term was invented by Jim Martin to refer to {non-procedural}{ high level languages} built around {database} systems.

    The fourth generation language (4GL) was designed to be very close to natural language to ease the programming process and with the idea that certain applications could be generalised by adding limited programming ability to them.

    The fourth generation language are called Report Generated languages, because when fed a description of data format and the report to generate,they turned that into a {COBOL} ( or another 3GL,which actually contained the commands to read and process the data) and placed the results on the page.

    Some examples of 4GL are : {SQL}; {Focus}, {Metafont},

    {PostScript}, {S}, {IDL-PV/WAVE}, {Gauss},

    {Mathematica}; and {data-stream languages} such as {AVS},

    {APE}, {Iris Explorer}.

    Enjoy the Formal entry here: 4GL


    BTW, FOLDOC really great and helping me improve my knowledge in Computer Science.

    Thanks Denis Howe!

    with rms, the guru of GNU

    It was exactly the ditto of what I had read in FAIFZILLA

    In the early and intial day ( when opensource, freesoftware,linux were same for me) I used to think of rms in comparision with Mahatma Gandhi; one maths professor there ( at Cochi Unversity of Science and Technology) gave a breif introduction and said that he feels that rms is comparable to Mahatma Gandhi.

    rms closed his eyes with shyness.

    then he came to mike and said, well he( rms) and his movement cannot be compared with Gandhi's coz.

    he ( rms) does not have the courage which Gandhi had { I clapped here} and free software movement is not yet as sucessful as Gandhi's movement was.

    The sucess of the movement depends upon you ( he pointed to us in the audience).

    then it started with the explaination of Free Software Movement and the Gnu operating system. The ditto of the narration which you will find at faifzilla.

    There was a lot of Hackerish Humor in between, for eg:

    rms said " If you know how to swim; you see a person drowning in pool and it is not bush, would not you save him ?"

    - this was w.r.t to helping your neighbour by sharing the software which is one of the freedoms provided by free software.

    moving on to serious issues, rms said, " idealism is practical. The people who say that idealism is not possible, they are wrong. If you have long range goal , you either need to have an ideal or lots of money. it is because of idealism that nations like India and US exists"

    The speech ended with St.iGNUcious show , every one enjoyed that with good laugh.

    The Q/A session followed. I had noted few points to be asked/discussed:

    1) About Don Hopkins.

    2) About MIT lab allowing rms to program and start the gnu after he had quit MIT.

    3) About the Teaching profession instead of waiter ( he says in his speech)

    4) Thanks for GNU Emacs

    5) About Donald Knuth and his perception of CS, which is different.

    6) Why not GNU HURD? Why is still not happening.

    7) Argentina and Germany where lots of politics had crept with software.

    8) Free Software having a Free Market

    9) BASH - the Best Shell

    10) gnu c library was developed by a 17 year old - rms didnt name him in the speech, got to find links on it.

    11) which search engine do you use?

    12) The Fun of CS is lost in preaching and politics of free software. - read this thought.

    so on.

    I asked by starting, which search engine do you use.

    rms said : none

    I could not proceed further, I detailed when on cyberspace and you want to find something, which search engine do you use.

    he said: I dont use any search engine, because it is software running a their computer on their server, I do not have any control on that.

    - but me and lot of people use a search engine.

    rms: its upon you, I have taken to schism of not using any proprietary software and using only free software.

    - by search and internet only ,I could locate information like Open course ware provided by MIT

    rms: opencourseware is not under free license

    - but they improve the life of humanity

    rms : yes, they improve the life of humanity,but they are not under free license.

    later on it became that many more questions were to be asked by audiences.

    Questions about HURD followed, and he said that they are technical questions and you should solve them.

    After having got an autograph in the GNU GPL and Free Software, Free Society Book,

    I continued.

    - Do you still have contact with Don hopkins.

    rms: at times.

    - What is he doing now.

    rms: I dont know.

    - do you think that things like WSF, will be able to combat bush things.

    rms: I dont know, but I am just doing it.

    - According to an Indian Philosophy, you need stregth to combat strength.

    rms: ( agreeing to Indian thought) , yes there should be more people , why not you join in.

    sometime later:

    - Hope you do more programming this year. Have fun with programming.

    rms: I need to talk on the free software philosiphy, I dont get time to program these days.

    - but you are a guru , a master programmer.

    rms:nodding, yes but there are lot of people programming but very few talking on these matters.

    - Happy Hacking.

    ( he was involved with signing others and later I heard some continuation on wsf ,bush which on still on his mind)


    yes, it true, one will listen only if one hears about free software stuff from rms.

    like he practises what is says - ( " one should be the change which he wants to see in this world")

    Does not use anything other than free software.

    I dont know much abt myself. I am not completely as per his views, but I respect rms a lot.

    Here are the news paper reports

    The Hindu (1)

    The Hindu (2)

    The Hindu (3)

    - this (3) one was regarding the malayalam font released on that day, I just had brief talk with the person. The person was not completely a gnu/linux one.

    This hindu article is about Maddog visiting India at SGI premises, Matthew Scheulk having phone conversation with Prez APJ kalam and visiting India and RMS at WSF and kerala.


    I had been introduced to Alice by one of my friend Kiruba. Since then, I am highly fascinated with these linguistic chatting entities. I found number of others like Eliza and lot many others having egos of some singer,actor like...

    But the best surprise came to me from Alan. He is really interesting. Whomever I introduced him to, they are really fascinated about him. Alan is from a Isreali company.

    At Alicebot, you will many a times see about Leobner Prize . Infact, Alice has won Leobner Prize priviously. But I did not find such informations at Alans place and he is good a holding conversation better than ALICE.

    When Dr.Rich posted his observations regarding Leobner Prize, I raised a question:

    If given a head-head competition between ALICE and ALAN, I am sure ALAN has better chances of winning.

    The major difference I have found between ALICE and ALAN is that ALAN can continue with its sentences( it is one of the drawbacks as well, since it can to switch topics between continuing sentences) whereas ALICE is somewhat likea one-liner. I have always wondered, why ALAN is not featuring in Loebner Prize contests. If you ask these things to ALAN, you may get some "political responses"...

    I dont know what the actual story is.. but dont you all agree that ALAN is good than ALICE?

    What are the reasons? What are tradeoffs?

    To me, the race is can ALICE match and beat ALAN in conversational skills.

    These were answers which followed by

    • ( Dr.Rich) Someone posted a question about the ALAN chat bot so I went to have a look. This bot evolved from Jason Hutchens' Megahal project, a former Loebner prize winner. I must admit, when I engaged ALAN in a conversation about ALICE and the Loebner contest, the results were impressive.

      That being said, it must be remembered that ALICE and AIML are free, open source technology and the company is developing a proprietary "black box". If you ask ALAN, "How do you work", he explains "My brain consists of a large content tree: A single 'agent file' and a set of 'handlers', which govern a variety of conversation topics." He also admits, "My brain is still quite small: less than 350 handlers and a few hundred variables. But I'm still a young bot. Think how smart I'll be when I have thousands or more!"

      Their web site is impressive and contains a lot of useful links, but there is nothing equivalent to the free AIML software that you can download and create your own bot. (They have however announced a program that allows poeple to create so-called Private Virtual Personalities).

      The ability of ALAN to stay "on topic" for (apparently) longer than ALICE is an illusion which could just as well be created using the tag of AIML. It happens that the ALICE brain has a wider range of "one-liner" responses and uses the tag very little. But there is no reason in principle that another AIML bot could carry on a conversation just like ALAN.

    • Has anyone tried teaching ALAN? It is really cool. Ask it "What is logical" and if there is no definition for it, it ask you to define it. So you reply "Logical is when the world blows up because it is run by chatter bots" and from then on that will be the definition. If you want to delete it say, "Forget logical" I tell you, you can have a lot of fun redefining a whole bunch of definitions :-)

      I wonder if there is way to teach alice through talking to her?

    • can't imagine it would be too hard... hmm do any of the interpreters allow for variable expansion in the xml, i don't think that that would be normal xml though... i know with embedded javascript or embedded perl (ProgramV) it would be fairly simple to do that.

    • The problem is that random clients can't be trusted as teachers. They can teach the robot all kinds of nonsense like, "The Indianapolis Speedway is located at the North Pole." In principle you can teach a bot by talking to her, but you have to figure out which teachers you can trust first.

      I always say it's like teaching a child language by telling him to go out on the street and believe everything he hears. Sure, he may learn to talk, but without supervision he won't learn right answers from wrong


      I had a version of targeting working in SETL for a while that could pick out targets for the botmaster and carry on a natural language conversation like, "Someone said, 'how do fish swim?' and I said 'I didn't even know they could', what should I have said?" And then the botmaster could write the new reply in natural language. Unfortunately that code was lost and it hasn't been re-implemented in any of the other AIML software that I know of.

    • teach alice through talking to her?

      Sure, done before many times. Not many interpreters provide a mechanism for real-time learning. J-Alice is

      one of the few still supported interpreters that does. TinyAlice was perhaps the first to introduce a working

      version of the concept.

      Visit for links to downloads and more information, etc.

      For SETL That sounds very cool Rich :) Unfortunately, J-Alice doesn't support targeting at all. But such a system much nicer alternative to training the bot. I would certainly love to see a re-implementation of this sometime in the near future ;-)

    • One possible idea is to use the net to verify or grade a response. I tried the sample question at . It returned


      Is The Indianapolis Speedway located at the north pole ?

      Possible answers: XML TXT

      Indianapolis Raceway Park - Located on the west side of Indianapolis Take I-465 to the west side of Indianapolis to the Speedway/Clermont exit; Take exit 16A and keep to the right lane.

      Indianapolis Motor Speedway - The speedway is a 2 1/2 mile, paved, oval located on the west side of Indianapolis."

      No mention of "at the north pole". Hmmm, maybe we should ask the person about that. Maybe they moved it. Just because you find it on the net does not mean its right (yes, a billion people can be wrong), but if you can't find it, you may want some follow up.

    • Too bad you can't use telecommunication in the Loebner contest. A bot in the contest couldn't access the info on becauase it would violate the no-telecommunications rule. You'd have to figure out how to download all the info from answerbus onto the local machine.

    Phew.. got to learn and experiment much.

    and BTW, I will make my phoe6 more smart ;)

    Why John Smith?

    My sister asked me, why every email client has the name John Smith as example.

    Interesting indeed.I dunno. Lets post the question at usenet

    In any Email Client, the example name is used as "John Smith". Who is this John Smith, and why are all the clients using this same name for example setups.

    • It leaves a better impression than "John Doe".

    • The Brit who established the first permanent British colony in North America. (1607, Jamestown, Virginia)

      An explorer, writer, soldier.

      It is simply used in America as a generic male name, like John Doe, who was the first man in America to be trampled to death by a female deer.

      Smith means common, and Doe means anonymous, to get technical.

      (John Doe was so messed up they couldn't identify him)

      (see below)

      (just kidding about the deer thing :-)

    • I have always assumed that it was because Smith was the most common "English" surname and John was the most common given name. Consequently, the example was "real" but could not be associated with

      an individual.