AI Class Notes - 2

Notes from AI Class

Any solution goes from (0,0) state to (goal state).

  • Reasoning.

  • AI stands for positive thinking.*

  • Chess playing, alternative choices, multiple choices.

  • Humans can think simultaneously different things.

  • Machine intelligence revolution.

What is A.I?

Artificial: Produced by art. Not genuine or natural, not pertaining to

    the sense of matter.

Synonymous: Synthetic, fictitious, pretend, simulated, spurious,


Antonyms: Actual, genuine, honest, real, natural, truthful and


Intelligence: Endowed with a faculty of reasoning, quick of mind, well

    informed and communicative.
  • Marvin Minsky's initial writings provide a very good introduction.

  • Do plants think?

Objectives of AI?

Primary Goal: To Make the computers smart. (CS)

Secondary Goal: To understand the nature of human intelligence.(psychologist)

Entreprenuers" To make machines more useful and economical (eventually

    replace humans)

Japanese tried to create machines that will help humans when they fail.

  • Fuzzy Logic in washing machines.

  • Inacessible to humans? Machines with intelligence needed.

Normal missiles will be shot, but missiles with intelligence have chances of

hitting the target.

Virtual reality system help in designing the A.I system.

What is an A.I problem today may not be same 20 years down.


AI is the study of how to make computers do things at which at the moment,

human beings are better.

(2) AI is the study of mental faculties through the use of computational



1) What are our own underlying assumptions about intelligence?

2) At what level of details are we going to model and mimic intelligence?

3) What kind of tools and techniques we have at present for study of AI?

4) How will we know that we have succeeded in building an intelligent system?

5) What computers can and cannot do?

6) Can machines think?

7) Can a machine fool a human being into thinking that (s)he chatting with

another human being?

Computational methods:

  • Number crunching.

  • Huristic programming.

  • Automatic programming.

8) Why we think that machines cannot?

9) For that matter, do humans think? and How do we think?


A Modern AI Lab.

    * Reasoning about objects.

    * Programming [ lisp, prolog ]

    * Architecture [ fifth generation, parallel]

    * Design and Analysis Systems [ knowledge based expert AI

      systems, decision support systems]

    * Speech and Language

    * Learning.

    * Vision and Speech

    * Robotics

Intelligent Behaviour:

Use of huristics: using some rules of thumb for deciding any of the several

alternative choices.


Best first search, breadth first search and depth first search.

  • Huristic should help us in dramatically reducing the search for solution in

the large problem spaces.

  • No guarantee of optimal solution.

Two approaches to Designing AI Based Computers.

Top-Down Approach

        A.I. Application


    * Predicate Logic

    * Frames

    * Semantic Nets.

    * Knowledge Representation

        A.I. Languages

    * Lisp

    * Prolog

    * Smalltalk

Bottom Up Approach

        Computing Model

    * Control Flow

    * Data Structure

    * Data

        A.I Architecture


To Reach IISc from your Home.

Parameters: Vehicle, Mode of transport, Map.

Time and shortest path constraints.

Between own vehicle and public transport, which one is preferable?


Search Engine, algorithm is intelligence and database is knowledge.

Human information processing.

All knowledge structures are Tree Structures.


Reasoning refers to the different kinds of activities:

  • Drawing conclusions from different set of facts.

  • Diagnosing possible cause of conditions.

  • Making assumption about a situation.

  • Analysis of organizing facts and data about problem

  • Solving a problem or a puzzle.

  • Arguing with a person with a particular point of view.

Classification of Reasoning activities:

Based on Degree of perception

  • Deductive reasoning.

  • Inductive reasoning.

  • Default reasoning.

Based on level of reasoning.

  • Problem level reasoning.

  • Meta level reasning.

Based on generality

  • Casual

  • Common Sense.

  • von monotonic

  • Plausible

  • special

  • Temporal

  • Reasoning systems involve the representation of information and word.


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